Remove Multi-Arch support for Ubuntu source packages

1. debian/control
Edit ‘debian/control’ file in source directory, remove all ‘Multi-Arch: same’ and ‘Pre-Depends: multiarch-support’.

2. debian/rules
Edit ‘debian/rules’ file in source directory, remove all ‘DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_MULTIARCH)’ and ‘$(DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH)’.

3. debian/*.install
Replace ‘/lib/*/’ to ‘/lib/’ in these files.

Over!

Windows XP 客户系统的 KVM 参数

在 KVM 里安装了一个 Windows XP,觉得 KVM 切换挺麻烦的,还需要远程控制,就映像了3389端口到宿主系统,关闭了KVM的图形输出。记录一下我的 KVM 参数。

kvm -cpu core2duo -smp 2 -m 512 -soundhw all -rtc base=localtime,clock=host -net nic -net user,hostfwd=tcp::3389-:3389 -daemonize -nographic -hda /dev/sdc2

Over!

Ubuntu 无线共享网络的奇怪问题

同学拿着他的笔记本到我们家蹭网,我把我的笔记本上的 Ubuntu 按如下设置开启了共享网络。同学的笔记本和我的手机都可以正常的连接到此无线网络。在同学的笔记本上登录QQ和访问HTTP协议的网页都正常,我的手机也一样。奇怪的问题是不管是他的笔记本还是我的手机都打不开 HTTPS 协议的网页,即使手机使用 VPN 也一样打不开。

这会是什么方面的问题呢?非常的不解。

Over!

LNMP 多用户动态进程管理虚拟主机方案

A. 特点
1. 高效、内存使用少。
2. 权限分离,用户间互不干扰。
3. 动态进程管理,资源分配均衡。

B. 应用程序说明
Nginx:事件驱动的 Web 服务器,采用模块化设计,小巧、高效。
PHP-FPM:支持快速进程管理的 PHP FastCGI 接口版本,用它实现动态进程管理,提高资源使用效率。

C. 整个架构的简单说明
Nginx 处理所有的 Web 请求,它将 PHP 的请求 Match 出,发送给上游服务器处理,这里的上游服务器就是 PHP-CGI。
PHP-CGI 工作在 FastCGI 模式,它侦听着一个地址端口(或 Unix socket文件,建议组合权限使用 Unix Socket 更安全),Nginx 会连接并发送请求及回收结果并发送给客户浏览器。
Nginx 运行于 www-data 用户环境,这要求 www-data 用户有所有虚拟主机用户的主目录访问权限。每个虚拟主机拥有自己的 PHP-CGI 进程组,这个进程组由 PHP-FPM 动态管理,会根据负载增加和减少工作进程,对资源均衡分配。
Nginx 使用了 HTTP OwnerMatch 模块,使得它能够控制每个虚拟主机的每个 Location 有哪些用户的文件的访问权限。关于这个模块

D. 以 Ubuntu 10.04 系统为例的配置实例
1. 安装应用程序

sudo apt-get install nginx mysql-server php5-fpm php5-mysql

PS:建议下载补丁版本的 Nginx => https://heiher.info/1755.html
PS:Ubuntu 10.04 amd64 的 php5-fpm 下载 => http://heiher.info/sftp/php5/

2. 配置 Nginx
指定 Nginx 的进行用户,和工作进程数,其它根据实际需要作出调整。

sudo vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user www-data;       # 指定使用 www-data 执行 Nginx
worker_processes 2;  # 指定 2 个子工作进程

3. 配置虚拟主机用户
a. 创建用户目录

sudo mkdir -p /var/web/USERNAME/{config,cert,run}

b. 创建用户与组
本方案使用 sftp 作为用户的文件管理器,虚拟主机用户没有终端。sftp 方案见我的另一日志。

sudo useradd -m -g sftp -s /bin/false USERNAME
sudo mkdir -p /home/USERNAME/web/{www,logs}
sudo ln -s /home/USERNAME /var/web/USERNAME/home

c. 虚拟主机配置文件模板
/var/web/USERNAME/config/vhost 为虚拟主机配置文件,将软链接到 /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/ 目录中。以下是模板,修改其中的 USERNAME 和 server_name 值。

# vhost
# Heiher <admin@heiher.info>
 
# HTTP Server
server {
 
	listen   80; ## listen for ipv4
 
	server_name  localhost;
 
	access_log  /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/logs/access.log;
	error_log  /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/logs/error.log;
 
	location / {
		root   /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/www;
		index  index.html index.htm index.php;
		## Rewrite
		if (!-e $request_filename)
		{
			rewrite ^(.+)$ /index.php?q=$1 last;
		}
		omallow USERNAME sftp; # 允许访问隶属于 USERNAME:sftp 的文件
		omdeny all;					# 禁止访问其它所有文件
	}
 
	# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on socket file
	#
	location ~ \.php$ {
		if (!-e $request_filename) {
			return 404;
		}
		fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/web/USERNAME/run/pfw.sock;
		fastcgi_index  index.php;
		fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/www/$fastcgi_script_name;
		include fastcgi_params;
	}
 
	# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
	# concurs with nginx's one
	#
	location ~ /\.ht {
		deny  all;
	}
}
 
# HTTPS Server
server {
 
	listen   443; ## listen for ipv4
 
	server_name  localhost;
 
	ssl  on;
	ssl_certificate  /var/web/USERNAME/cert/cert.pem;
	ssl_certificate_key  /var/web/USERNAME/cert/cert.key;
 
	ssl_session_timeout  5m;
 
	ssl_protocols  SSLv3 TLSv1;
	ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv3:+EXP;
	ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
 
	access_log  /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/logs/access.log;
	error_log  /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/logs/error.log;
 
	location / {
		root   /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/www;
		index  index.html index.htm index.php;
		## Rewrite
		if (!-e $request_filename)
		{
			rewrite ^(.+)$ /index.php?q=$1 last;
		}
		omallow USERNAME sftp;
		omdeny all;
	}
 
	# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on socket file
	#
	location ~ \.php$ {
		if (!-e $request_filename) {
			return 404;
		}
		fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/web/USERNAME/run/pfw.sock;
		fastcgi_index  index.php;
		fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/www/$fastcgi_script_name;
		fastcgi_param  HTTPS on;
		include fastcgi_params;
	}
 
	# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
	# concurs with nginx's one
	#
	location ~ /\.ht {
		deny  all;
	}
}

d. PHP-FPM 池配置文件模板
/var/web/USERNAME/config/php5-fpm.conf 为 PHP-FPM 池配置文件,将软链接到 /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/ 目录中。以下是模板,修改其中的 USERNAME 即可,可根据需要调整动态进程管理参数。

; Start a new pool name
[USERNAME]
 
; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses on a
;                            specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = /var/web/USERNAME/run/pfw.sock
 
; Set listen(2) backlog. A value of '-1' means unlimited.
; Default Value: -1
;listen.backlog = -1
 
; List of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
;listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
 
; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions. 
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0666
listen.owner = USERNAME
listen.group = www-data
listen.mode = 0660
 
; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
user = USERNAME
group = sftp
 
; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives:
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic
 
; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'dynamic'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI.
; Note: Used when pm is set to either 'static' or 'dynamic'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 10
 
; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 3
 
; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 2
 
; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 8
 
; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
pm.max_requests = 8192
 
; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. By default, the status page shows the following
; information:
;   accepted conn    - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   pool             - the name of the pool;
;   process manager  - static or dynamic;
;   idle processes   - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes - the number of active processes;
;   total processes  - the number of idle + active processes.
; The values of 'idle processes', 'active processes' and 'total processes' are
; updated each second. The value of 'accepted conn' is updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   accepted conn:   12073
;   pool:             www
;   process manager:  static
;   idle processes:   35
;   active processes: 65
;   total processes:  100
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html' or 'json' as a query string will return the corresponding output
; syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set 
;pm.status_path = /status
 
; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;ping.path = /ping
 
; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
;ping.response = pong
 
; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_terminate_timeout = 0
 
; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_slowlog_timeout = 0
 
; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: /var/log/php-fpm.log.slow
;slowlog = /var/log/php-fpm.log.slow
 
; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024
 
; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0
 
; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever 
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot = 
 
; Chdir to this directory at the start. This value must be an absolute path.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
chdir = /var/web/USERNAME/home/web/www
 
; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Default Value: no
;catch_workers_output = yes
 
; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp
 
; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'. 
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.
 
; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.
 
; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f www@my.domain.com
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
;php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/fpm-php.www.log
;php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on
;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 32M

e. 设置目录权限
这个步骤很关键,必须认真仔细设置,如无特殊需要,不要修改。如果我错了,感谢指正。

sudo chown -R root:root /var/web/USERNAME/config
sudo chmod 0755 /var/web/USERNAME/config
sudo chmod 0640 /var/web/USERNAME/cofnig/vhost
sudo chmod 0640 /var/web/USERNAME/config/php5-fpm.conf
 
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/web/USERNAME/cert
sudo chmod 0750 /var/web/USERNAME/cert
sudo chmod 0640 /var/web/USERNAME/cert/cert.pem
sudo chmod 0640 /var/web/USERNAME/cert/cert.key
 
sudo chown USERNAME:www-data /var/web/USERNAME/run
sudo chmod 0750 /var/web/USERNAME/run
 
sudo chown root:root /home/USERNAME
sudo chown -R USERNAME:www-data /home/USERNAME/web
sudo chmod 0755 /home/USERNAME
sudo chmod 0750 /home/USERNAME/web
 
# 注:/home/USERNAME/web/www 目录中的文件和目录全部要求是 USERNAME:sftp 隶属,文件权限 0644 目录权限 0755。

f. 启用此用户的虚拟主机和 PHP

sudo ln -s /var/web/USERNAME/config/vhost /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/USERNAME
sudo ln -s /var/web/USERNAME/config/php5-fpm.conf /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/USERNAME.conf
sudo nginx -t # 重启前测试脚本有没有错误
sudo service nginx reload
sudo service php5-fpm restart

PS:所有的虚拟用户都隶属于 sftp 用户组,本方案建议使用 SFTP 作为用户的文件传输窗口。在 sshd_config 中对 sftp 组用户做必要的限制,如禁止转发和 Chroot 等等。

Over!

Linux 调度器很有意思

刚才在 KVM 里安装 Windows XP 系统,以备不时之需。Windows 安装程序一直停留在安装网络阶段,而我一直在浏览网页,大概过了20多分钟,我切换窗口看了一下KVM的安装仍然停留了之前的位置。

我将鼠标切换进 KVM 中,移动鼠标,奇怪的事情发生成,随着我移动鼠标的速度增加,安装的进度也在加速。我想这应该是内核调度器的影响吧,不是怎么活跃的桌面程序就得不到多少CPU处理。有时是应该要活跃一点喽。

真是有意思的调度器。

Over!

Ubuntu 10.04 LTS 驱动 AR8152 v2.0

Ubuntu 10.04 LTS 操作系统的内核并不支持 AR8152 v2.0 以太网卡,需要编译安装最新的驱动模式。

下载最新驱动源代码
http://wireless.kernel.org/download/compat-wireless-2.6/ 下载最新源代码压缩包。

编译驱动模块

tar xjf compat-wireless-2010-12-12.tar.bz2
cd compat-wireless-2010-12-12
scripts/driver-select atl1c
make

安装驱动模块

sudo make install

装载模块或重启

sudo modprobe atl1c

Over!

使用 Ubuntu 的 DELL Inspiron n4030 禁用触摸板

不知为何系统不能正确处理禁用触摸板功能键的消息,直接移除 psmouse 模块达到禁用目的。

临时禁用触摸板

sudo modprobe -r psmouse

永远禁用触摸板

sudo vi /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
blacklist psmouse

Over!

在 Ubuntu 上架设 OpenVPN 的智能网关

如果你没有一款支持 OpenWRT 等系统的路由器,又想让私有网络里的其它终端都能使用比较智能的网关翻墙的话,那么可以使用下面介绍的方法。

首先你需要有一个国外的 OpenVPN 账号,其次私有网络里有一台终端安装了 OpenVPN 客户端,这里就以 Ubuntu 系统为例,其它系统类似。

安装 OpenVPN
OpenVPN 在 Ubuntu 系统里的打包是服务端和客户端共享的,只是配置文件不同。

sudo apt-get install openvpn

导入证书
准备好你的证书和密钥,一共三个文件,分别是 ca.crt、client.crt、client,key,复制到 /etc/openvpn/keys/ 目录。

sudo mkdir /etc/openvpn/keys
sudo cp ca.crt client.crt client.key /etc/openvpn/keys/

生成智能路由表
http://code.google.com/p/chnroutes/downloads/list 下载 chnroutes_ovpn_linux

python chnroutes_ovpn_linux
sudo mkdir /etc/openvpn/scripts
sudo cp vpnup vpndown /etc/openvpn/scripts/

编写配置文件

sudo cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/client.conf /etc/openvpn/client.conf
sudo vim /etc/openvpn/client.conf  # 下面是需要修改的部分
remote my-server-1 1194  # my-server-1 修改成 vpn 服务器地址
 
user nobody
group nogroup
 
ca keys/ca.crt
cert keys/client.crt
key keys/client.key
 
scripts-security 2
up scripts/vpnup
down scripts/vpndown

启动和停止 VPN 服务
由于 OpenVPN 是系统服务,而且是开机自动启动的。

sudo service openvpn start # 启动服务
sudo service openvpn stop # 停止服务

设置 NAT

sudo sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
sudo vim /etc/sysctl.d/10-ip-forward.conf
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -j MASQUERADE
sudo iptables-save > /tmp/firewall.rules
sudo cp /tmp/firewall.rules /etc/
sudo vim /etc/rc.local
# /etc/rc.local
/sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/firewall.rules
exit 0

其它终端设置
其它终端修改原来的网关地址为新的智能网关地址,如果使用DHCP服务器分配地址的,可能给智能网关使用手动指定的地址,然后将DHCP服务器的地址分配中修改网关为智能网关的地址。

Over!